Force Majeure under Indonesian Law / Keadaan Kahar di Hukum Indonesia

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Force Majeure under Indonesian Law

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Keadaan Kahar (Keadaan Memaksa) Berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia 

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Force Majeure or often to be read as forced condition (keadaan memaksa) is not specifically formulated under the Indonesian Civil Code (ICC) :

In general, as cited from the 9th Black Law Dictionary:

Force Majeure
“An event or effect that can be neither anticipated nor controlled. The term includes both acts of nature (e.g., floods and hurricanes) and acts of people (e.g., riots, strikes, and wars). – Also termed force majesture; vis major; superior force. Cf. ACT OF GOD; VIS MAJOR (1)”

Force Majeure Provision
“A contractual provision allocating the risk of loss if performance becomes impossible or impracticable, esp. as a result of an event or effect that the parties could not have anticipated or controlled”

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Force Majeure atau keadaan kahar atau sering juga disebut sebagai keadaan memaksa tidak dirumuskan secara khusus dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (KUHP) Indonesia.
Secara umum saya kutip dari Black Law Dictionary 9th edition:

Keadaan Kahar (Force Majeure)
“suatu kejadian atau akibat yang tidak dapat diantisipasi atau dikendalikan. Istilah tersebut termasuk untuk setiap tindakan alam (contoh banjir dan tornado) dan tindakan manusia (contoh kerusuhan, demo dan perang).

Pasal Keadaan Kahar
“suatu ketentuan kontrak yang mengalokasikan risiko kehilangan jika pelaksanaan menjadi tidak dapat dilakukan atau tidak dapat dilaksanakan, sebagai akibat dari suatu kejadian atau akibat yang mana para pihak tidak dapat antisipasi atau kendalikan.

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Force Majeure under indonesian Civil Code

Force Majeure is found under the following article of the ICC (subekti version):

Article 1244 ICC:

If there is any reason for such, the debtor is compensate for costs, damages and interests if he cannot prove, that the non-performance or the late performance of such obligation, is caused by an unforeseen event, for which he is not responsible and he was not acting in bad faith.

Article 1245 ICC:

The debtor needs not compensate for costs, damages or interests, if an act of God or an accident prevented him from giving or doing an obligation, or because of such reasons he committed a prohibited act.

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Force Majeure didalam KUHP

Force Majeure atau keadaan kahar ditemukan dalam beberapa pasal di KUHP (subekti) sebagai berikut:

Pasal 1244 KUHP:
“Jika ada alasan untuk itu si berhutang harus dihukum mengganti biaya, rugi dan bunga, bila ia tidak membuktikan, bahwa hal tidak dilaksanakan atau tidak pada waktu yang tepat dilaksanakannya perjanjian itu, disebabkan karena suatu hal yang tak terduga, pun tak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan padanya, kesemuanya itu pun jika itikad buruk tidak ada pada pihaknya.”

Pasal 1245 KUHP:
“Tidaklah biaya, rugi dan bunga harus digantinya, apabila karena keadaan memaksa [overmacht] atau karena suatu keadaan yang tidak disengaja, si berutang berhalangan memberikan atau berbuat sesuatu yang diwajibkan, atau karena hal-hal yang sama telah melakukan perbuatan yang terlarang.”

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Article 1444 ICC:

Where a certain specific assets that constitute the subject matter of the agreement are destroyed, becomes unmerchantable, or are lost, to the extent that one is not aware whether or not the assets still exist, the obligations are discharged, insofar as the assets are destroyed or lost due to no fault of the debtor, and prior to his defaulting on delivering the assets.

Notwithstanding the default of the debtor on delivering the goods, which were previously not insured against unforeseeable events, the obligations are also discharged if the goods would have perished in a similar manner had they been delivered to the creditor.

The debtor must prove the unforeseen circumstances he asserts.

Irrespective of the manner in which the goods are lost or destroyed, the individual who has expropriated these assets are not
relieved from the obligation to compensate the value thereof.

Article 1445 ICC:

If the assets owed are destroyed, becomes unmerchantable or are lost through no fault ofthe debtor, the debtor is required, if he has anyrights or claims for recourse related to these assets, to assign them to the creditor.

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 Pasal 1444 KUHP:

“(1) Jika barang tertentu yang menjadi pokok perjanjian musnah, tak dapat diperdagangkan, atau hilang, hingga sama sekali tidak diketahui apakah barang itu masih ada, maka hapuslah perikatannya, asal barang itu musnah atau hilang di luar kesalahan si berutang dan sebelum ia lalai menyerahkannya.
(2) Bahkan meskipun si berutang lalai menyerahkan suatu barang, sedangkan ia tidak telah menanggung terhadap kejadian-kejadian yang tidak terduga, perikatan tetap hapus jika barang itu akan musnah juga dengan cara yang sama di tangannya si berpiutang seandainya sudah diserahkan kepadanya.
(3) Si berutang diwajibkan membuktikan kejadian yang tidak terduga, yang dimajukannya itu.
(4) Dengan cara bagaimanapun suatu barang yang telah dicuri, musnah atau hilang, hilangnya barang itu tidak sekali-kali membebaskan orang yang mencuri barang dari kewajibannya mengganti harganya.”

Pasal 1445 KUHP:
“Jika barang yang terutang, di luar salahnya si berutang musnah, tidak dapat lagi diperdagangkan, atau hilang, maka si berutang, jika ia mempunyai hak-hak atau tuntutan-tuntutan ganti rugi mengenai barang tersebut, diwajibkan memberikan hak-hak dan tuntutan-tuntutan tersebut kepada orang yang mengutangkan kepadanya.”

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Article 1444 ICC:

Where a certain specific assets that constitute the subject matter of the agreement are destroyed, becomes unmerchantable, or are lost, to the extent that one is not aware whether or not the assets still exist, the obligations are discharged, insofar as the assets are destroyed or lost due to no fault of the debtor, and prior to his defaulting on delivering the assets.

Notwithstanding the default of the debtor on delivering the goods, which were previously not insured against unforeseeable events, the obligations are also discharged if the goods would have perished in a similar manner had they been delivered to the creditor.

The debtor must prove the unforeseen circumstances he asserts.

Irrespective of the manner in which the goods are lost or destroyed, the individual who has expropriated these assets are not
relieved from the obligation to compensate the value thereof.

Article 1445 ICC:

If the assets owed are destroyed, becomes unmerchantable or are lost through no fault ofthe debtor, the debtor is required, if he has anyrights or claims for recourse related to these assets, to assign them to the creditor.

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 Pasal 1444 KUHP:

“(1) Jika barang tertentu yang menjadi pokok perjanjian musnah, tak dapat diperdagangkan, atau hilang, hingga sama sekali tidak diketahui
apakah barang itu masih ada, maka hapuslah perikatannya, asal barang itu musnah atau hilang di luar kesalahan si berutang dan sebelum ia lalai menyerahkannya.
(2) Bahkan meskipun si berutang lalai menyerahkan suatu barang, sedangkan ia tidak telah menanggung terhadap kejadian-kejadian yang tidak terduga, perikatan tetap hapus jika barang itu akan musnah juga dengan cara yang sama di tangannya si berpiutang seandainya sudah diserahkan kepadanya.
(3) Si berutang diwajibkan membuktikan kejadian yang tidak terduga, yang dimajukannya itu.
(4) Dengan cara bagaimanapun suatu barang yang telah dicuri, musnah atau hilang, hilangnya barang itu tidak sekali-kali membebaskan orang yang mencuri barang dari kewajibannya mengganti harganya.”

Pasal 1445 KUHP:
“Jika barang yang terutang, di luar salahnya si berutang musnah, tidak dapat lagi diperdagangkan, atau hilang, maka si berutang, jika ia mempunyai hak-hak atau tuntutan-tuntutan ganti rugi mengenai barang tersebut, diwajibkan memberikan hak-hak dan tuntutan-tuntutan tersebut kepada orang yang mengutangkan kepadanya.”

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Elements of Force Majeure

  1. unexpected event;
  2. cannot be held responsible to the debtor;
  3. there is no bad faith from the debtor;
  4. the existence of an unintentional situation by the debtor;
  5. this condition prevents debtors from fulfilling the performance;
  6. if the obligations is carried out it will be subject to a ban;
  7. circumstances beyond the debtor’s error;
  8. debtors did not fail to deliver (deliver goods);
  9. these events can not be avoided by anyone (both the debtor and other parties);

Note:
– debtor -> parties who must perform: those who must perform obligations – fulfillment of obligations;
– Force Majeure or force majeure must have a direct impact on the performance of the debtor;
– In some literature also mentioned that the debtor was not proven to make mistakes.

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Unsur-unsur Force Majeure

  1. peristiwa yang tidak terduga;
  2. tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan kepada debitur;
  3. tidak ada itikad buruk dari debitur;
  4. adanya keadaan yang tidak disengaja oleh debitur;
  5. keadaan itu menghalangi debitur berprestasi;
  6. jika prestasi dilaksanakan maka akan terkena larangan;
  7. keadaan di luar kesalahan debitur;
  8. debitur tidak gagal berprestasi (menyerahkan barang);
  9. ejadian tersebut tidak dapat dihindari oleh siapa pun (baik debitur maupun pihak lain);

Catatan:
– debitur -> pihak yang harus melakukan prestasi : pihak yang harus melakukan kewajiban – pemenuhan kewajiban;
– Force Majeure atau keadaan kahar harus berdampak langsung terhadap prestasi dari debitur;
– didalam beberapa literatur disebutkan juga bahwa debitur tidak terbukti melakukan kesalahan.

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Legal Implication of Force Majeure’s
If a force majeure event occurs, one of the parties affected by the force majeure shall:

  • Unable to fulfill its obligation but cannot be declared default.
  • Not required to pay compensation due to failure to fulfill the obligation.
  • Cannot be claimed for cancellation of the engagement because it is deemed null / void (in a mutual agreement).
  • Risk due to failure to fulfill the obligation cannot be transferred to the debtor.

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Akibat Hukum Force Majeure
Apabila suatu keadaan kahar (Force Majeure) terjadi, maka salah satu pihak yang terdampak keadaan kahar tersebut akan:

  • Tidak dapat memenuhi prestasi namun tidak dapat dinyatakan wanprestasi.
  • Tidak wajib membayar ganti rugi dikarenakan kegagalannya memenuhi prestasi.
  • Tidak dapat dituntut pembatalan perikatan karena dianggap gugur/hapus (pada perjanjian timbal balik).
  • Risiko akibat kegagalan pemenuhan prestasi tidak dapat dialihkan kepada debitur.

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Types of Force Majeure

– Based on the Cause:
Force Majeure occurs because of a certain situation that can be divided into the following matters:

  1. Natural conditions such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and so on.
  2. Emergencies (generally usually caused by humans) such as wars, blockades, strikes, epidemics, terrorism, explosions, mass riots, including those that cause the failure to fulfill the obligation.
  3. the destruction or disappearance of the object of the agreement.
  4. Government policies or regulations that have an impact on ongoing performance, so that these achievements / obligations are not possible to be implemented. 

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Jenis-Jenis Force Majeure

–          Berdasarkan Penyebab:

Force Majeure terjadi karena adanya suatu keadaan tertentu yang bisa dibagi kedalam hal-hal berikut:

  1. Keadaan alam misal banjir, longsor, gempa bumi, badai, gunung meletus, tornado dan sebagainya.
  2. Keadaan darurat (secara umum biasanya ditimbulkan oleh manusia) misal peperangan, blokade, pemogokan, epidemi, terorisme, ledakan, kerusuhan massa, termasuk yang menyebabkan tidak (dapat) terpenuhinya suatu perikatan.
  3. Musnahnya atau hilangnya objek perjanjian.
  4. Kebijakan atau peraturan pemerintah yang berdampak pada prestasi yang sedang berlangsung, sehingga prestasi/kewajiban tersebut tidak mungkin untuk dilaksanakan.

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–          By Nature:

  1. Permanent Force Majeure, in this case, this force majeure causes the agreement to be unfulfilled or not carried out at all.
  2. Temporary Force Majeure, this force majeure results in the fulfillment of obligations being delayed. It should be noted that in the temporary force majeure, fulfillment of obligations remains, only delayed until the force majeure is complete.

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–          Berdasarkan Sifat:

  1. Force Majeure Tetap, yang mana keadaan kahar ini menyebabkan tidak dapat dipenuhinya atau dilaksanakannya perjanjian sama sekali.
  2. Force Majeure Sementara, yang mana keadaan kahar ini mengakibatkan pemenuhan kewajiban menjadi tertunda. Perlu dicatat bahwa dalam keadaan kahar sementara, pemenuhan kewajiban tetap ada, hanya tertunda sampai dengan keadaan kahar tersebut selesai.

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–          Based on the Object:

  1. Whether the object of the obligation can be fulfilled wholly by the party who has the obligation.
  2. whether the object of the obligation can only be fulfilled partially or not wholly fullfilled by the party who has the obligation.

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–          Berdasarkan Objek:

  1. Apakah objek prestasi dapat dipenuhi seluruhnya oleh debitur.
  2. Apakah objek prestasi (kewajiban) hanya dapat dipenuhi sebagian atau tidak penuh oleh debitur.

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–          based on Certain aspect:

  1. Impossibility: The impossibility of executing a contract is a condition where a person is no longer possible to carry out his obligation under the contract because of circumstances beyond his responsibility.
  2. Hardship.
  3. Frustration: an event which is not accountable to one party, an event which results in no longer being possible to achieve the purpose of the contract, even though the parties may actually carry out the contract. Because, the purpose of the contract is not possible anymore so that the contract is in a state of frustration.
  4. Impractibility: the event is also without fault of the parties, where with the said event the parties actually theoretically still possible to achieve their obligations, but practically occur in such a way that even if it is carried out as per the contract, it will require a great sacrifice in terms of cost, time or other sacrifice.

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–          Berdasarkan hal tertentu:

  1. Impossibility: Ketidakmungkinan pelaksanaan kontrak adalah suatu keadaan di mana seseorang tidak mungkin lagi melaksanakan kontraknya karena keadaan di luar tanggung jawabnya.
  2. Hardship.
  3. Frustration : peristiwa yang tidak dipertanggungjawabkan kepada salah satu pihak, kejadian mana mengakibatkan tidak mungkin lagi dicapainya tujuan dibuatnya kontrak tersebut, sungguhpun sebenarnya para pihak masih mungkin melaksanakan kontrak tersebut. Karena, tujuan dari kontrak tersebut tidak mungkin tercapai lagi sehingga dengan demikian kontrak tersebut dalam keadaan frustrasi.
  4. Impractibility: peristiwa juga tanpa kesalahan dari para pihak, peristiwa tersebut sedemikian rupa, di mana dengan peristiwa tersebut para pihak sebenarnya secara teoretis masih mungkin melakukan prestasinya, tetapisecara praktis terjadi sedemikian rupa sehingga kalaupun dilaksanakan prestasi dalam kontrak tersebut, akan memerlukan pengorbanan yang besar dari segi biaya, waktu atau pengorbanan lainnya.

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Force Majeure Precedence in Indonesia

–          Putusan No. 587PK/Pdt/2010;

–          Putusan No. 3087K/Pdt/2001;

–          Putusan No. 2914K/Pdt/2001;

–          Putusan No. 285PK/Pdt/2010;

–          Putusan Hogerrechtshof Batavia  17 September 1925.

Source:
– Restatement – Penjelasan hukum tentang Keadaan Memaksa;
– Hukum Perikatan – J Satrio.
– R. Setiawan, pokok-pokok hukum perikatan.

 

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Yurisprudensi Force Majeure di Indonesia

–          Putusan No. 587PK/Pdt/2010;

–          Putusan No. 3087K/Pdt/2001;

–          Putusan No. 2914K/Pdt/2001;

–          Putusan No. 285PK/Pdt/2010;

–          Putusan Hogerrechtshof Batavia  17 September 1925.

Sumber:
– Restatement – Penjelasan hukum tentang Keadaan Memaksa;
– Hukum Perikatan – J Satrio.
– R. Setiawan, pokok-pokok hukum perikatan.

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