Indonesia’s Land Law/ Hukum Pertanahan Indonesia

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Indonesia’s Land Law

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Hukum Pertanahan Indonesia 

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Before we proceed further, we can convey to you that Indonesia’s Land law is a complex regime legal framework and different with other nations which usually has a coded law for its land law regime.

Indonesian Land Law mainly governed under Law No. 5 of 1960 on Basic Provisions of Agrarian Principles (“Agrarian Law“).

The Agrarian Law recognized among others the following right, Right of Ownership (“Hak Milik”), Right to Build (“Hak Guna Bangunan” or “HGB”), the Right to Cultivate (“Hak Guna Usaha” or “HGU”) and the Right to Use (“Hak Pakai”).

Noted that other than the above said right, the Agrarian Law acknowledges the indigeneous right (Adat Right) which known as Ulayat right.

 

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Sebelum kita melangkah lebih jauh, kami dapat menyampaikan kepada Anda bahwa hukum pertanahan Indonesia adalah kerangka hukum rezim yang kompleks dan berbeda dengan negara lain yang biasanya memiliki kodifikasi hukum untuk rezim hukum pertanahannya.

Hukum Pertanahan Indonesia diatur oleh Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1960 tentang Peraturan dasar Pokok-Pokok Agraria (“UU Agraria”).

UU Agraria mengakui antara lain hak-hak sebagai berikut, Hak Kepemilikan (“Hak Milik”), Hak untuk Membangun (“Hak Guna Bangunan” atau “HGB”), Hak Usaha (“Hak Guna Usaha” atau “HGU”) dan Hak Pakai (“Hak Pakai”).

Perlu dicatat bahwa selain dari hak tersebut di atas, UU Agraria mengakui hak pribumi (Hak Adat) yang dikenal sebagai hak Ulayat.

 

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Eigendom Right

Eigendom right is generally can be interpreted as the right to own, eigendom right are set out in article 570 until 624 of the Indonesian Civil Code(“ICC”), which was replaced by the Agragian Law.

Under the Agrarian Law, the existing eigendom right can be converted into the right to build, to date it is rarely that we found a land without a formal certification, ownership, however in some cases in Indonesia there are lands which still are hold by with eigendom right.

 

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Eigendom

Hak Eigendom umumnya dapat diartikan sebagai hak untuk memiliki, hak eigendom diatur dalam pasal 570 hingga 624 KUH Perdata Indonesia (“KUHP”), yang digantikan oleh UU Agragia.

Berdasarkan UU Agraria, hak eigendom yang ada dapat dikonversi menjadi hak Guna Bangunan, saat ini jarang ditemukan tanah tanpa kepemilikan sertifikasi formal,, namun dalam beberapa kasus di Indonesia masih ada tanah yang masih dipegang oleh hak eigendom .

 

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Absence of ownership documentation

In the event that there are no ownership documentation (this will be different treatment with the adat land title), the PBB payment evidence which supported by the Surat Keterangan Tanah (“SKT”) endorsed by the Lurah and Camat is generally accepted as an indication of title when land right will be processed through.

 

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Tidak adanya dokumentasi kepemilikan

Dalam hal tidak ada dokumentasi kepemilikan (ini akan berbeda perlakuan dengan sertifikat tanah adat), bukti pembayaran PBB yang didukung oleh Surat Keterangan Tanah (“SKT”) yang disahkan oleh Lurah dan Camat umumnya diterima sebagai indikasi hak saat hak atas tanah akan diproses.

 

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Classification of Land Titles

Under the Agrarian Law, Indonesian land titles are divided into the following categories:

  • Right of Ownerships (Hak milik)
  • Right to Build (Hak Guna Bangunan)
  • Right to Cultivate (Hak Guna Usaha)
  • Right to Use (Hak Pakai)
  • Leasehold (Hak sewa)
  • Right to Clear Land (hak membuka tanah);
  • Right to Collect Forest Products (Hak memungut hasil hutan)
  • Right to Manage (Hak Pengelolaan)

there are several right to title in Indonesian Laws which will be discussed in different post.

 

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Klasifikasi Hak atas Tanah

Berdasarkan UU Agraria, Hak atas tanah di Indonesia dibagi ke dalam kategori sebagai berikut:

  • Hak Milik
  • Hak Guna Bangunan
  • Hak Guna Usaha
  • Hak Pakai
  • Hak sewa
  • Hak untuk Membuka Tanah;
  • Hak memungut hasil hutan
  • Hak Pengelolaan.
ada beberapa hak atas tanah lain yang diatur di dalam Hukum Indonesia yang akan dibahas di blog post lain.

 

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Right of Ownership (Hak Milik)

Right of ownership is the most extensive right under indonesia’s land law, being unlimited in duration and is available for lien.

The right of ownership have the following categorizations:

  • essentially an ownership right over a plot of land that is hereditary in nature and the highest land title that a person can hold;
  • The right of ownership is available only to individuals who are Indonesian citizens (natural persons);

In addition, Government Regulation No. 28 of 1963 stipulates that the following Indonesian entities may also hold a right to ownership:

  1. State-owned banks;
  2. agrarian cooperatives; and
  3. religious and social entities.

Despite being a hereditary right, Article 27 of the Agrarian Law stipulates that a right to ownership title may revert back to the government due to the following reasons:

  1. Revocation of land rights by the Government;
  2. Voluntary transferred by owner;
  3. Abandonment;
  4. Previously owned by foreigners or a freehold land transfer to foreigners; and
  5. Object of the Right of Ownership disappear or is destroyed.

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Hak Milik

Hak Milik adalah hak yang paling luas di berdasarkan hukum pertanahan Indonesia, yang memiliki durasi tidak terbatas dan tersedia untuk dijaminkan.

Hak milik memiliki kategorisasi berikut:

  • pada dasarnya hak kepemilikan atas sebidang tanah yang bersifat turun temurun dan hak atas tanah tertinggi yang dapat dipegang seseorang;
  • Hak kepemilikan hanya tersedia bagi individu yang merupakan warga negara Indonesia (perorangan);

Selain di atas, Peraturan Pemerintah No. 28 tahun 1963 menetapkan bahwa entitas Indonesia berikut ini juga dapat memiliki hak milik:

  • Bank milik negara;
  • koperasi agraria; dan
  • entitas keagamaan dan sosial.

Meskipun merupakan hak turun-temurun, Pasal 27 UU Agraria menetapkan bahwa hak kepemilikan dapat dikembalikan kepada pemerintah karena alasan-alasan berikut:

  1. karena pencabutan hak;
  2. karena penyerahan dengan sukarela oleh pemiliknya;
  3. karena diterlantarkan;
  4. Sebelumnya dimiliki oleh orang asing atau transfer hak milik ke orang asing; dan
  5. Objek Hak Kepemilikan menghilang atau dihancurkan.

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Right to Build (Hak Guna Bangunan)

The Right to build or Hak Guna Bangunan title is given for the purposes of constructing or owning a building on land owned by the government or an Indonesian citizen based on a right to ownership.

HGB may be held by Indonesian citizens or corporations that are established and domiciled in Indonesia.

The HGB may be acquired in two differrent measures:

  1. granted by the government;
  2. based on the right of ownership; based on an agreement between the owner and interested party.

HGB title is the grant of a right in land for 30 years authorizing the holder to utilize the land and anything previously or thereafter build upon the land on an exclusive basis for that period.

Period of HGB can be extended for an additional 20 years. Upon reaching the expiration date of the extension period, the Right to Build over the same land area may be renewed. Conceptually it is similar to a long-term ground leas under the common law system.

Note that as stipulated under Article 37 of Government Regulation no. 40 of 1996 on Right to Cultivate, Right to build and right to use of Land (“GR 40/1996“) if the HGB is granted over Government-owned land and is not renewed, the land right holder must clear the buildings and objects located on the respective land. This must be performed within one year after the expiration of the HGB.

 

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Hak Guna Bangunan

Hak untuk membangun atau Hak Guna Bangunan diberikan untuk tujuan membangun atau memiliki bangunan di atas tanah yang dimiliki oleh pemerintah atau warga negara Indonesia berdasarkan hak kepemilikan.

HGB dapat dimiliki oleh warga negara Indonesia atau perusahaan yang didirikan dan berdomisili di Indonesia.

HGB dapat diperoleh dalam dua langkah berbeda:

  • diberikan oleh pemerintah;
  • berdasarkan hak kepemilikan; berdasarkan kesepakatan antara pemilik dan pihak yang berkepentingan.

Hak HGB adalah pemberian hak atas tanah selama 30 tahun yang memberi kuasa kepada pemegang HGB untuk memanfaatkan tanah dan apa pun yang sebelumnya atau sesudahnya dibangun di atas tanah tersebut secara eksklusif untuk periode itu.

Periode HGB dapat diperpanjang untuk tambahan 20 tahun. Setelah mencapai tanggal kedaluwarsa periode perpanjangan, Hak Guna Bangunan di atas lahan yang sama dapat diperbarui. Secara konseptual mirip dengan sewa tanah jangka panjang berdasarkan sistem common law.

Perlu dicatat bahwa sebagaimana diatur dalam Pasal 37 Peraturan Pemerintah No. 40 tahun 1996 tentang Hak Guna Usaha, Hak Guna Bangunan dan hak Pakai atas Tanah (“GR 40/1996”) jika HGB diberikan atas tanah milik Pemerintah dan tidak diperbarui, pemegang hak tanah harus membersihkan bangunan dan benda-benda terletak di tanah tersebut yang mana harus dilakukan dalam waktu satu tahun setelah berakhirnya HGB.

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Right to Cultivate (Hak Guna Usaha) 

Right to Cultivate (HGU) specifically given to cultivate state-owned lands with an area of at least five hectares for agricultural, fishery, and livestock businesses. This land right can be held by Indonesian citizens and corporations established and domiciled in Indonesia.

It is generally issued on Government-owned land to Indonesian citizens or legal entities (including PMA for agriculture purpose).

HGU Term may be granted up to a maximum of 35 (thirty-five) years with a possible extension for 20 (twenty) years. The maximum  area of land given to an individual based on a HGU is twenty-five hectares. Corporation has the ability to hold such titles, on the other hand, are separately determined by the National Land Agency,

Note that article 28 and 33 of the Agrarian Law stipulates that the HGU may be encumbered with a mortgage (Hak Tanggungan) and transferred to other parties.

 

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Hak Guna Usaha

Hak Guna Usaha (HGU) khusus diberikan untuk mengolah tanah milik negara dengan luas setidaknya lima hektar untuk pertanian, perikanan, dan bisnis ternak. Hak atas tanah ini dapat dipegang oleh warga negara dan perusahaan Indonesia yang didirikan dan berdomisili di Indonesia.

Biasanya diterbitkan pada tanah milik pemerintah untuk warga negara Indonesia atau badan hukum (termasuk PMA untuk tujuan pertanian).

Jangka waktu HGU dapat diberikan hingga maksimal 35 (tiga puluh lima) tahun dengan kemungkinan perpanjangan selama 20 (dua puluh) tahun. Luas maksimum tanah yang diberikan kepada seseorang berdasarkan HGU adalah dua puluh lima hektar. Perusahaan memiliki kemampuan untuk memegang hak tersebut, di sisi lain, secara terpisah ditentukan oleh Badan Pertanahan Nasional,

Perlu dicatat bahwa pasal 28 dan 33 UU Agraria menetapkan bahwa HGU dapat dibebani dengan hak Tanggungan dan dapat dipindahkan ke pihak lain.

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Right to Use (Hak Pakai)

The Right of Use is a subsidiary right in land which may be granted by the holder of any of the land right mentioned above.

Right to use grants the right to use and collect produce from a plot of land that is owned by the Government or an Indonesian citizen who holds a right of ownership.

The Right to Use may be held by:

  • Indonesian citizens;
  • Corporations established and domiciled in Indonesia;
  • Ministries, non-ministerial government institutions, and regional governments;
  • Religious and social bodies;
  • Foreigners domiciled in Indonesia;
  • Representative offices of foreign corporations; and
  • Foreign missions and representatives of international organizations.

The Right of Use is limited in its duration by an agreement or a decree, as the case may be. the granting of this right is usually for maximum 25 (twenty five) years and an option to be extended for maximum 20 (twenty) years.

Be noted that the Right of Use is usually subject to specific restrictions on the intended use of the land.

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Hak Pakai

Hak Pakai adalah hak turunan atas tanah yang dapat diberikan oleh pemegang salah satu hak tanah yang disebutkan di atas.

Hak pakai memberikan hak untuk hak untuk menggunakan dan mengumpulkan hasil dari sebidang tanah yang dimiliki oleh Pemerintah atau warga negara Indonesia yang memiliki hak kepemilikan.

Hak Pakai dapat dipegang oleh:

  • Warga negara Indonesia;
  • Perusahaan didirikan dan berdomisili di Indonesia;
  • Kementerian, lembaga pemerintah non kementerian, dan pemerintah daerah;
  • Badan keagamaan dan sosial;
  • Orang asing berdomisili di Indonesia;
  • Kantor perwakilan perusahaan asing; dan
  • (ngo) asing dan perwakilan dari organisasi internasional.

Hak Pakai dibatasi durasinya berdasarkan suatu perjanjian atau keputusan, tergantung pada subjeknya. pemberian hak ini biasanya untuk maksimum 25 (dua puluh lima) tahun dan opsi untuk diperpanjang untuk maksimum 20 (dua puluh) tahun.

Perlu dicatat bahwa Hak Pakai biasanya tunduk pada batasan spesifik pada tujuan penggunaan lahan.

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Leasehold (Hak Sewa)

Hak sewa is an ownership of a temporary right to a land area . Hak sewa is available to (i) indonesian citizens; (ii) non residents; (iii) corporations established and domiciled in Indonesia; (iv) representatives of foreign corporations.

 

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Hak Sewa

Hak sewa adalah kepemilikan hak sementara atas tanah. Hak sewa ada untuk (i) warga negara Indonesia; (ii) bukan penduduk; (iii) korporasi didirikan dan berdomisili di Indonesia; (iv) perwakilan perusahaan asing.

 

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Right to Clear Land (hak membuka tanah)

The right to clear land is not elaborated in-depth under the Agrarian Law or in any other laws and regulations (even though the Agrarian Law have mandates the issuance of a Government Regulation to regulate these rights).

the right to clear land can be granted to indonesian citizens and will be further govern by the government regulation. According to the Elucidation to the Agrarian Law, these rights are derived from customary law related to land matters.

 

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Hak Membuka Tanah

Hak untuk membuka Tanah tidak dijabarkan secara mendalam di bawah UU Agraria atau dalam hukum dan peraturan lain mana pun (meskipun UU Agraria telah mengamanatkan penerbitan Peraturan Pemerintah untuk mengatur hak-hak ini).

hak untuk membuka Tanah dapat diberikan kepada warga negara Indonesia dan akan diatur lebih lanjut dengan peraturan pemerintah. Menurut Penjelasan UU Agraria, hak-hak ini berasal dari hukum adat terkait masalah pertanahan.

 

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Right to Manage (Hak Pengelolaan)

The Right to Manage is not explicitly provided for under the  Agrarian Law. the Hak Pengelolaan is a land tenure deriving from the Government. the holder of Right to Manage have the right to use the land, note that the right to manage is not available for security purposes (conventional).

 

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Hak Pengelolaan

Hak Pengelolaan tidak secara eksplisit diatur dalam UU Agraria. Hak Pengelolaan adalah hak atas tanah yang berasal dari Pemerintah. Pemegang Hak Pengelolaan memiliki hak untuk menggunakan tanah, perlu dicatat bahwa hak pengelolaan tidak dapat dijadikan sebagai jaminan (konvensional).

 

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Apartments / Rumah Susun

Apartments / Rumah Susun is governed under Law No. 20 of 2011 which will be discussed in other blog posts.

 

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Apartemen / Rumah Susun

Apartemen / Rumah Susun diatur berdasarkan UU No. 20 tahun 2011 yang akan dibahas dalam posting blog lainnya.

 

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a more detailed writing on this blog will be issued to further discuss specific provisions under Land Law 

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