Apakah pasal 1338 KUHP menyebabkan Force Majeure tidak dapat di implementasi? /  Does article 1338 of Indonesian Civil Code prevents the Force Majeure from being implemented ?

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Apakah pasal 1338 KUHP menyebabkan Keadaan Kahar tidak dapat diimplementasi ? 

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 Does article 1338 of the Indonesian Civil Code prevents the Force Majeure implementation?

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Sebelum beranjak lebih lanjut, lihat tulisan saya mengenai  Force Majeure —> Penjelasan Force Majeure berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia   (klik linknya)

Penting untuk diketahui bahwa di website ini terdapat Website Disclaimer yang diberlakukan.

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Before we proceed further, please see my post on Force Majeure —>  Force Majeure under Indonesian Law (click the link)

It is important to be noted that under this website, the Website Disclaimer is applicable.

 

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Syarat Sahnya Perjanjian berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia

Pasal 1320 KUHPerdata mensyaratkan 4 (empat) syarat sahnya perjanjian yaitu:

  1. Sepakat
  2. Cakap (kecakapan untuk mengadakan perikatan)
  3. Suatu hal tertentu
  4. Kausa hukum yang Halal

Perjanjian dianggap sah ketika ke-empat unsur-unsur sebagaimana tersebut di atas terpenuhi.

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The Validity of Agreement under Indonesian Law

Articles 1320 of the Indonesian Civil Code stipulates a four conditions in order for an agreement to be valid:

  1. Agreement
  2. capacity/competence
  3. a certain subject matter
  4. a lawful purpose

Agreement is deemed to be valid should the above four conditions is fulfilled

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Apa isi dari pasal 1338 KUHPerdata?

pasal 1338 (1) menyebutkan bahwa semua perjanjian yang dibuat secara sah berlaku sebagai undang-undang bagi mereka yang membuatnya, sering juga dikenal sebagai asas pacta sunt servanda.

Pasal 1338 (2) Suatu perjanjian tidak dapat ditarik kembali selain dengan sepakat kedua belah pihak, atau karena alasan-alasan yang oleh undang-undang dinyatakan cukup untuk itu.

Pasal 1338 (3) Suatu perjanjian harus dilaksanakan dengan itikad baik. (Good Faith)

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What is the content of article 1338 of the Indonesian Civil Code?

Article 1338 (1) states that all legally made agreements apply to the party who have concluded them as law, also known as pacta sunt servanda principle.

Article 1338 (2) such agreements are irrevocable other than by mutual consent or pursuant to reasons stipulated by the law.

Article 1338 (3) An agreement must be carried out in good faith. (Good Faith)

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Apakah hubungan antara pasal 1338 dan 1320 KUHPerdata?

Pasal 1338 (1) menyebutkan bahwa perjanjian  yang dibuat secara sah, berlaku bagi mereka bagaikan undang-undang bagi mereka yang membuatnya. Kalimat “sah” disini merujuk kepada pasal 1320 KUHPerdata yang menyatakan bahwa sahnya perjanjian bergantung kepada terpenuhinya unsur-unsur sebagaimana dinyatakan di Pasal 1320 KUHPerdata.

Jadi apabila terdapat salah satu persyaratan yang tidak terpenuhi dalam syarat sahnya perjanjian dalam pasal 1320 KUHPerdata, maka perjanjian tersebut dapat menjadi “dapat dibatalkan” atau “batal demi hukum” tergantung dari prasyarat mana yang dilanggar dalam Perjanjian tersebut.

untuk penjelasan lebih lanjut, lihat tulisan saya mengenai perjanjian di blog ini.

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What is the relationship between articles 1338 and 1320 of the Indonesian Civil Code ?

Article 1338 (1) stipulates that all legally made agreements apply to the party who have concluded them as law. The sentence “legal” or “valid” here refers to article 1320 of the Indonesian Civil Code which states that the validity of an agreement depends on the fulfillment of the elements as stated in Article 1320 of the Civil Code.

Thus, should there one of the conditions which is not fulfilled in the terms of the validity of the agreement under article 1320 of the Indonesian Civil Code, then the agreement can be “canceled” or “null and void” depending on which preconditions are violated under the Agreement.

for further explanation, see my blog post about agreement on this blog.

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Keadaan Kahar dan Pasal 1338 KUHPerdata

Kembali ke topik utama dan pembahasan di blog post ini, Pasal 1338 merupakan suatu prinsip dasar dari pelaksanaan perjanjian. didalam pasal 1338 terdapat asas itikad baik yang mana setiap orang yang membuat perjanjian atau mengadakan suatu perjanjian dengan pihak lain harus melaksanakan perjanjian tersebut dengan itikad baik, yang mana salah satu karakter dari asas itikad baik ini adalah tidak menyalahgunakan keadaan untuk tidak melaksanakan kewajiban dalam Perjanjian.

Prasyarat dari Keadaan Kahar atau Force Majure di atur dalam pasal 1245-1246 KUHPerdata yang meskipun secara eksplisit definisi dari Keadaan Kahar ini tidak ditemukan dalam KUHPerdata, tapi dapat ditemukan penjabarannya di peraturan perundang-undangan contohnya di UU Jasa Konstruksi dan UU Pengadaan Barang dan jasa Pemerintah. lihat tulisan saya mengenai  Force Majeure —> Penjelasan Force Majeure berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia   (klik linknya).

Keadaan Kahar merupakan suatu unsur naturalia yang mana dianggap diam-diam di dalam perjanjian, dalam arti bila para pihak tidak mengaturnya, pengaturannya diatur di dalam Undang-undang.

Jadi menurut hemat penulis, meskipun perjanjian tidak membahas mengenai Keadaan Kahar secara rinci, namun apabila suatu Keadaan Kahar terjadi dan peristiwa Keadaan Kahar tersebut memenuhi unsur-unsur Keadaan Kahar yaitu :

  • peristiwa yang tidak terduga;
  • tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan kepada debitur; dan
  • tidak ada itikad buruk dari debitur;

Maka peristiwa Keadaan Kahar ini dapat diaminkan, namun demikian Pihak yang terdampak dari Keadaan Kahar tersebut tidaklah dapat menghindari kewajibannya berdasarkan Kontrak atau lebih jauh meminta pengakhiran dari perjanjiannya, dengan mengingat bahwa setiap Pihak dalam perjanjian harus melaksanakan Perjanjian tersebut dengan itikad Baik (1338 KUHPerdata).

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Force Majeure and Article 1338 of Indonesian Civil Code

Returning to the main topic and discussion in this blog post, Article 1338 is a basic principle of the implementation of the agreement. Article 1338 stipulates a principle of good faith in which everyone who makes an agreement or entered into an agreement with another party must carry out the agreement in good faith, which one of the characteristics of this principle of good faith is not to abuse the situation to not carry out the obligations under the Agreement.

The prerequisites of Force Majeure are set out under articles 1245-1246 of the Indonesian Civil Code, although the definition of Force Majeure is not explicitely found under the Indonesian Civil Code, the definition can be found in some of the laws (Undang-undang) for example under the Construction Services Law and the Government Procurement Law. see my writing on Force Majeure —>  Force Majeure under Indonesian Law (click the link).

Force Majeure is a naturalia element under the agreement which is considered to be part of the agreement, even though the party did not regulate it under the agreement, the arrangement is set forth under the provisions of the Law.

Thus, the author view that, although the agreement does not discuss or regulate the Force Majeure in detail, if a Force Majeure event occurs and the Force Majeure event fulfill the elements of the Force Majeure namely:

  • unexpected events;
  • cannot be held responsible to the debtor; and
  • no bad intention from debtor;

Then this Force Majeure event can be applicable, however, the Party affected by the Force Majeure cannot avoid obligations under the Contract or further request the termination of the agreement, by bearing in mind that each Party under the agreement shall implement the Agreement in good faith (1338 Indonesian Civil Code).

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Apakah dapat dilakukan pengakhiran Perjanjian berdasarkan Keadaan Kahar?

Apabila Perjanjian antara kedua belah pihak menyebutkan bahwa dapat dilakukannya pengakhiran perjanjian dikarenakan oleh Keadaan Kahar, maka jawabannya adalah iya.

Secara konseptual Keadaan Kahar dibagi-bagi menjadi beberapa jenis, lihat tulisan saya mengenai  Force Majeure —> Penjelasan Force Majeure berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia .

Namun disini yang perlu ditekankan adalah apakah peristiwa Keadaan Kahar tersebut bersifat permanen atau sementara. Hal inilah yang perlu dicermati dari peristiwa Keadaan Kahar ini, karena apabila Keadaan Kahar tersebut bersifat sementara, maka setelah Keadaan Kahar tersebut selesai atau masanya telah terlewati maka kewajiban dari pihak yang terdampak untuk memenuhi kewajibannya masih tetap ada dan dapat ditagih oleh pihak lainnya.

Disamping itu, apabila peristiwa Keadaan Kahar tersebut bersifat permanen, maka pihak yang terdampak wajib untuk memberi tahu mengenai ketidakmampuannya untuk memenuhi kewajibannya berdasarkan perjanjian terhadap pihak lainnya, dikarenakan pihak tersebut terdampak sepenuhnya sehingga tidak dapat memenuhi kewajibannya atau apabila barang/objek dari perjanjian musnah dikarenakan adanya Keadaan Kahar tersebut (Pasal 1444 -1445KUHPerdata).

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Can an agreement be terminated based on Force Majeure event? 

If the agreement between the parties stated that the agreement may be terminated due to the Force Majeure event, then the answer is yes.

Conceptually, the Force Majeure is divided into several types, see my writing on Force Majeure —>  Force Majeure under Indonesian Law (click the link)..

Please be noted that it is important to determine whether the Force Majeure event is permanent or temporary. This is what must be derived from this Force Majeure event, because if the Force Majeure event is temporary, then after the Force Majeure event is completed or its time has passed then the obligation of the affected party to fulfill its obligations still remains and can be requested to be fulfilled the by other party.

In addition, if the Force Majeure event is permanent, the affected party is obliged to inform its inability to fulfill his obligations under the agreement to the other Party, because the party is fully affected so that it cannot fulfill its obligations or if the goods/objects of the agreement is destroyed due to the Force Majeure event (Article 1444 -1445 Civil Code).

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