Power of Attorney under Indonesian Law

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Power of Attorney under Indonesian Law

Surat Kuasa berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia

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What is the Power of Attorney?

Power of Attorney is a way to provide an authority or power to other people to conduct a certain matters (specified or in general).

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Surat Kuasa adalah suatu cara pemberian suatu kewenangan atau kekuasaan kepada orang lain untuk melaksanakan suatu urusan (tertentu atau secara umum).

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Source of Power of Attorney

With regards to Article 1792 of the ICC which stipulate as follwos:

 “the granting of a power of attorney is an agreement by which a person gives powers to another person, who accepts it, to perform on his behalf

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Merujuk kepada Pasal 1792 dari KUHPerdata yang berisi sebagai berikut :

“Pemberian kuasa adalah suatu perjanjian dengan mana seorang memberikan kekuasan kepada seorang lain, yang menerimanya, untuk atas namanya menyelenggarakan suatu urusan“ (subekti)

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Based on the said article, it can be viewed that under the power of attorney it consist 2 party, which is:

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Berdasarkan pasal tersebut, dapat dilihat bahwa dalam perjanjian kuasa terdapat dua pihak, yaitu :

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  1. The Authorizer; and
  2. The Authorized,

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  1. Pemberi Kuasa (lastgever); dan
  2. Penerima Kuasa (lasthebber).

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Which the Authorizer grant and/or represent to the Authorized to take care of its interests, in accordance with the authority as specified under the power of attorney.

Thus the Authorized is fully authorized or having power to represent the Authorizer

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Yang mana sang pemberi kuasa memberikan dan/atau mewakilkan kepada Penerima Kuasa untuk mengurus kepentingannya, sesuai dengan kewenangan yang ditentukan dalam surat kuasa.

Dengan demikian si Penerima Kuasa berkuaa penuh atau memiliki kewenangan untuk bertindak atas nama Pemberi Kuasa.

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 The Authorizer is responsible for all action, to the extent that the said action which done by the Authorized does not exceed the authority given by the Authorizer.  (Putusan MA-RI No. 331 K/Sip/1973, tgl. 4 Desember 1975).

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Pemberi kuasa bertanggung jawab atas segala perbuatan kuasa, sepanjang perbuatan yang dilakukan penerima kuasa tidak melebihi wewenang yang diberikan pemberi kuasa (Putusan MA-RI No. 331 K/Sip/1973, tgl. 4 Desember 1975).

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Note that the articles which regulate the grant of power of attorney, does not having an instruction nature (imperative), In addition the parties may agree to other matters in which does not regulated under the laws, for example the granting of an irrevocable power of attorney, because in general the article of the agreement having a regulate nature.

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Perlu dicatat bahwa pasal-pasal yang mengatur mengenai pemberian kuasa, tidak bersifat memberi perintah (imperatif). Selain itu para pihak dapat menyepakati hal-hal lain selain yang tidak diatur dalam undang-undang, misalnya agar pemberian kuasa tidak dapat dicabut kembali (irrevocable power of attorney), dikarenakan pada umumnya pasal-pasal perjanjian bersifat mengatur (aanvullend recht).

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Note that the articles which regulate the grant of power of attorney, does not having an instruction nature (imperative), In addition the parties may agree to other matters in which does not regulated under the laws, for example the granting of an irrevocable power of attorney, because in general the article of the agreement having a regulate nature.

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Perlu dicatat bahwa pasal-pasal yang mengatur mengenai pemberian kuasa, tidak bersifat memberi perintah (imperatif). Selain itu para pihak dapat menyepakati hal-hal lain selain yang tidak diatur dalam undang-undang, misalnya agar pemberian kuasa tidak dapat dicabut kembali (irrevocable power of attorney), dikarenakan pada umumnya pasal-pasal perjanjian bersifat mengatur (aanvullend recht).

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Under Indonesian Law there are 3 recognized type of Power of Attorney:

  1. General Power of Attorney (1795 ICC);
  2. Special Power of Attorney (1795 ICC);
  3. Special (particular) Power of Attorney (1796 ICC).

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Jenis Kuasa

Berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia terdapat 3 jenis Kuasa yang diakui:

  1. Pemberian Kuasa Umum (1795 KUHPerdata);
  2. Pemberian Kuasa Khusus (1795 ICC);
  3. Kuasa Istimewa (1796 ICC).

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Nature of Power of Attorney

  1. The Authorized directly having capacity as the representative of The Authorizer;
  2. Nature of Granting of POA is consensual;
  3. Having the Contract-Guarantee characteristic.

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Sifat Perjanjian Kuasa

  1. Penerima Kuasa Langsung Berkapasitas sebagai Wakil Pemberi Kuasa;
  2. Pemberian Kuasa bersifat konsensual;
  3. Berkarakter Garansi Kontrak.

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Termination of Power

Expiration/Termination of Power is regulated under 1813-1819 of ICC, primarily as follows:

1. Power being withdrawed by the Authorizer;

2. The Authorizer and the Authorized is passed away, under management or bankrupt;

3.  The Authorized is married (if the authorized is Female).

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Berakhirnya  Kuasa

Berakhirnya Kuasa diatur di Pasal 1813- 1819 KUHPerdata dimana pokoknya sebagai berikut:

1. Ditariknya kembali kuasa oleh Pemberi Kuasa;

2. Pemberi Kuasa ataupun Penerima Kuasa meninggal, dibawah pengampuan atau pailit;

3.  Kawinnya Pemberi Kuasa (apabila pemberi kuasa adalah Perempuan).

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row custom_padding=”0px|0px|0px|0px|false|false” custom_margin=”2px||0px|” padding_top_1=”0px” padding_top_2=”0px” padding_bottom_1=”0px” padding_bottom_2=”0px” _builder_version=”3.16″][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”3.0.47″ padding_bottom=”0px” padding_top=”0px” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.16″ text_font=”||||||||” text_font_size=”16px” text_line_height=”1.9em” header_font=”||||||||” header_3_font=”Lato|700||on|||||” header_3_text_color=”#3550a0″ header_3_font_size=”24px” header_3_font_size_phone=”20px” header_3_font_size_last_edited=”on|desktop” header_3_line_height=”1.7em” header_6_font=”||||||||” max_width=”600px” max_width_last_edited=”off|desktop” custom_margin=”|||” custom_padding=”|||” locked=”off”][/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”3.0.47″ padding_bottom=”0px” padding_top=”0px” parallax=”off” parallax_method=”on”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.16″ text_font=”||||||||” text_font_size=”16px” text_line_height=”1.9em” header_font=”||||||||” header_3_font=”Lato|700||on|||||” header_3_text_color=”#3550a0″ header_3_font_size=”24px” header_3_font_size_phone=”20px” header_3_font_size_last_edited=”on|desktop” header_3_line_height=”1.7em” header_6_font=”||||||||” max_width=”600px” max_width_last_edited=”off|desktop” custom_margin=”|||” custom_padding=”|||” locked=”off”]Referensi:

  • Hukum Acara Perdata, Yahya Harahap

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Contohnya:

  • surat gugatan menjadi tidak sah, apabila pihak yang mengajukan dan menandatangani gugatan tersebut tidak berdasarkan surat kuasa yang sah;
  • proses pemeriksaan dan/atau proses pemberian keterangan yang diberikan oleh pemberi keterangan yang tidak memiliki kuasa menjadi tidak sah;
  • dan lain lain.

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