Tort under Indonesian Law/ Perbuatan melawan Hukum berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia

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Tort under Indonesian Law

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Perbuatan Melawan Hukum berdasarkan Hukum Indonesia 

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In the Civil Law, the obligations (law of obligations or verbintenissenrecht) has a very important role, there are still often differences in interpretation of tort and defaults derived from the Agreement. in my writing, I will specifically discuss what is the Act against the Law and then in another post about the default specifically in the agreement.

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Di dalam hukum Perdata, hukum perikatan (law of obligations atau verbintenissenrecht) memiliki peran yang sangat penting, masih seringkali terjadi perbedaan intrepertasi dari Perbuatan Melawan Hukum dan wanprestasi yang berasal dari Perjanjian. didalam tulisan saya ini, saya akan khusus membahas mengenai apa itu Perbuatan Melawan Hukum dan selanjutnya di post lain mengenai wanprestasi secara khusus dalam perjanjian.

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Tort

Tort is governed under the Indonesian Civil Code in Article 1365 through Article 1380.

 

The Tort Terminology  is a translation of onrechtmatige daad (Dutch) which is also known as tort in English.

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Perbuatan Melawan Hukum

Perbuatan Melawan Hukum atau seringkali disebut PMH diatur dalam Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata dalam Pasal 1365 sampai dengan Pasal 1380.

Terminologi Perbuatan Melawan Hukum merupakan terjemahan dari onrechtmatige daad (Bahasa Belanda) yang mana dikenal juga sebagai tort dalam bahasa Inggris.

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Article 1365 reads as follows:

Every unlawful act that causes damage onto another person obliges the wrongdoer to compensate such damage

Tort are interpreted as an acts of harm rather than violations of contracts, which in general, a tort is  not based on contractual legal relations.

The obligation is born from an agreement or by law (1233 of the Indonesian Civil Code), Agreement is one of the source of the obligation and the other source of obligations is the law.

Violation of a statutory provision and causing harm to others is called Tort, and the injured party can file a tort claim (lawsuit) while the violation of the agreement is called default and the injured party based on the contract may file a default claim (lawsuit).

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Pasal 1365 berbunyi sebagai berikut:

tiap perbuatan melawan hukum, yang membawa kerugiaan kepada seorang lain, mewajibkan orang yang karena salahnya menerbitkan kerugiaan itu, mengganti kerugian tersebut” (subekti)

Perbuatan melawan hukum lebih diinterpretasikan sebagai perbuatan melukai daripada melakukan pelanggaran terhadap kontrak, yang mana secara umum perbuatan melawan hukum tidak didasari dengan adanya hubungan hukum kontraktual.

Perikatan dilahirkan baik karena persetujuan, baik karena undang-undang (1233 KUHP), Perjanjian merupakan salah satu sumber perikatan dan sumber perikatan lain adalah undang-undang.

Pelanggaran terhadap suatu ketentuan perundang-undangan dan menimbulkan kerugian terhadap orang lain disebut Perbuatan Melawan Hukum, dan pihak yang dirugikan dapat mengajukan gugatan perbuatan melawan hukum sedangkan pelanggaran terhadap perjanjian disebut wanprestasi dan pihak yang dirugikan berdasarkan kontrak tersebut dapat mengajukan gugatan wanprestasi.

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Tort (Case Review)

There are several cases that are often used as the basis for discussion of this Tort, one of which is the case of Lindenbaum vs Cohen or Drukkers Arrest (Hoge raad January 31, 1919) where Cohen a printing businessman has persuaded Lindenbaum printing employees to provide copies of orders from their customers. Cohen took advantage of this information so that Lindenbaum lost because his customers ran to the Cohen company. Next Lindenbaum sued Cohen to pay compensation to him. The lawsuit was granted by the District Court (Rechtbank). The High Court (Hof) reversed the District Court’s Decision on the grounds that even if the employee committed an act contrary to the law, which had violated a legal obligation, it did not apply to Cohen because the law does not explicitly forbid that stealing information is against the law.

 

 

Hoge Raad (Supreme Court) canceled Hof’s decision based on the consideration, that in the decision of the High Court the meaning of tort (onrechtmatige daad) was viewed narrowly so that it included only those acts which were directly prohibited by law. Whereas acts which are not prohibited by law, even though these acts are contrary to the necessity and propriety, which is required in the society is not tort.

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Perbuatan Melawan Hukum (Studi Kasus)

Terdapat beberapa kasus yang seringkali dijadikan dasar pembahasan mengenai Perbuatan Melawan Hukum ini, salah satunya yaitu kasus Lindenbaum vs Cohen atau Drukkers Arrest (Hoge raad 31 Januari 1919) dimana Cohen seorang pengusaha percetakan telah membujuk karyawan percetakan Lindenbaum untuk memberikan kopikopi pesanan dari para langganannya. Cohen memanfaatkan informasi ini sehingga Lindenbaum mengalami kerugian karena para langganannya lari ke perusahaan Cohen. Selanjutnya Lindenbaum menggugat Cohen untuk membayar ganti kerugian kepadanya. Gugatan tersebut dikabulkan oleh Pengadilan Negeri (Rechtbank). Pengadilan Tinggi (Hof) sebaliknya membatalkan Putusan Pengadilan Negeri dengan pertimbangan, bahwa sekalipun karyawan tersebut melakukan perbuatan yang bertentangan dengan undang-undang, yakni telah melanggar suatu kewajiban hukum, namun tidak berlaku bagi Cohen karena Undang-undang tidak melarang dengan tegas bahwa mencuri informasi adalah melawan hukum.

Hoge Raad membatalkan keputusan Hof tersebut atas dasar pertimbangan, bahwa dalam keputusan Pengadilan Tinggi makna tentang perbuatan melawan hukum (onrechtmatige daad) dipandang secara sempit sehingga yang termasuk di dalamnya hanyalah perbuatan-perbuatan yang secara langsung dilarang oleh undang-undang. Sedangkan perbuatan-perbuatan yang tidak dilarang oleh undang-undang, sekalipun perbuatan-perbuatan ini bertentangan dengan keharusan dan kepatutan, yang diwajibkan dalam pergaulan masyarakat bukan merupakan perbuatan melawan hukum.

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Tort Elements

Tort is an act against the law if it fulfills the following elements: 

  1. Act;
  2. Illegitimate Act;
  3. Fault;
  4. Damages; and
  5. there is a causal relationship between Act and damages.

 

1. Acts

Actions can be classified into two parts, namely actions that are intentional (active) and actions that are negligent (passive).

2. Illegitimate Act

Actions as referred to in point 1 above are said to meet the second element (against the law) if they meet the following conditions:

2.a Contradicts with the subjective rights of others
violation of a person’s subjective rights is a violation of the rights granted to people based on law.

Characteristics for a person’s subjective rights are:

  • Interests that have a high value to the concerned.
  • Direct recognition of the relevant authority by a statutory regulation.
  • a position of proof that is strong in a case that may arise.

Subjective rights in society are known as:

  • Absolute material rights, such as Title Right;
  • Personal rights, such as the right to have integrity for life and life, personal freedom, honor and good name;
  • special rights, for example the right to occupy a house by a tenant.

2.b Contrary to the legal obligations of the offender

An act that is against the Law.

2.c Contrary to decency

An act which violates social norms in society (where the norm in question is accepted as a habit by the community and becomes a part of unwritten law).

2.d Contrary to propriety

The acts referred to in this category are acts which are detrimental to others without proper interests and acts which pose a danger to others without being based on reasonable thought.

 

 

3. Fault

This element is actually not much different from the discussion above, the element of error means that a person is held responsible for the adverse consequences that occur due to wrongdoing.

 

4. Damages

The loss is related to compensation, Article 1365 states that the person who commits an unlawful act to compensate for the loss.

See Articles 1371 (2) and 1372 (2) for directions specified for compensation.

 

5. There is a causal relationship between deeds and losses

In this element, the loss suffered by a person must be proven that the loss is the result of an act carried out by the person who caused the loss.

in connection with the theory of causal relations, there are two teachings namely:

Theory of Conditio Sine Qua Non (Van Buri)

The essence of this teaching is: each problem, which is a condition for the output of a consequences, is the cause of the a consequences. For example A tells B to buy an item at a shop across the street, when crossing he was hit by a car driven by C. Actually, the direct cause of B’s ​​injury was C, but according to Von Buri, mistakes could be caused by all parties resulting in losses, namely A who ordered B and C to hit B.

Adaequate Veroorzaking Theory (Von Kries)

In essence, an action must be considered as the cause of the consequences that arise are actions that are balanced with the consequences. the balanced act is measured based on a proper calculation that is, according to common sense, it can be suspected that the act has certain consequences.

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Unsur Perbuatan Melawan Hukum

Suatu perbuatan melawan hukum dikatakan suatu perbuatan melawan hukum apabila memenuhi unsur-unsur:

  1. perbuatan;
  2. perbuatan tersebut melawan hukum;
  3. ada kesalahan;
  4. ada kerugian; dan
  5. terdapat hubungan kausal antara perbuatan dengan kerugian.

1. Perbuatan

Perbuatan dapat digolongkan dalam dua bagian yaitu perbuatan yang merupakan kesengajaan (aktif) dan perbuatan yang merupakan kelalaian (pasif).

2. Perbuatan tersebut melawan Hukum

Perbuatan sebagaimana disebut di poin 1 diatas dikatakan memenuhi unsur kedua (Melawan Hukum) apabila memenuhi ketentuan sebagai berikut:

2.a Bertentangan dengan hak subjektif orang lain
pelanggaran terhadap hak subjektif suatu orang adalah pelanggaran terhadap hak yang diberikan terhadap orang berdasarkan hukum.

Karakteristik untuk hak subjektif seseorang adalah:

  • Kepentingan yang mempunyai nilai tinggi terhadap yang bersangkutan.
  • Pengakuan langsung terhadap kewenangan yang bersangkutan oleh suatu peraturan perundang-undangan.
  • suatu posisi pembuktian yang kuat dalam suatu perkara yang mungkin timbul.

Hak subjektif dalam masyarakat dikenal sebagai:

  • Hak Kebendaan yang absolut, misalnya hak milik;
  • Hak-hak pribadi, seperti hak untuk mempunyai integritas terhadap jiwa dan kehidupan, kebebasan pribadi, kehormatan dan nama baik;
  • hak-hak istimewa, misalnya hak untuk menempati rumah oleh penyewa rumah.

2.b Bertentangan dengan kewajiban hukum si pelaku

Suatu perbuatan yang bertendangan dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan.

2.c Bertentangan dengan kesusilaan

Suatu perbuatan yang mana melanggar norma-norma sosial dalam masyarakat (yang mana norma yang dimaksud diterima sebagai kebiasaan oleh masyarakat dan menjadi suatu bagian dari hukum tidak tertulis).

2.d Bertentangan dengan kepatutan

Perbuatan yang dimaksud di kategori ini dalah perbuatan yang merugikan orang lain tanpa kepentingan yang layak dan  perbuatan yang menimbulkan bahaya bagi orang lain yang tanpa didasari pemikiran wajar.

3. Kesalahan 

Unsur ini sebetulnya tidak berbeda jauh dengan pembahasan di atas, unsur kesalahan bermakna bahwa seseorang dinyatakan bertanggung jawab untuk akibat yang merugikan yang terjadi karena perbuatannya yang salah.

4. Kerugian

Kerugian berhubungan dengan ganti rugi, Pasal 1365 menyatakan bahwa orang yang melakukan perbuatan melawan hukum untuk mengganti kerugian tersebut.

Lihat Pasal 1371 (2) dan 1372 (2) sebagai arahan yang ditentukan untuk ganti rugi.

5. Adanya hubungan kausal antara perbuatan dan kerugian

Didalam unsur ini, kerugian diderita oleh seseorang harus dapat dibuktikan bahwa kerugian tersebut merupakan akibat dari perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh yang menimbulkan kerugian tersebut.

sehubungan terori hubungan kausal, terdapat dua ajaran yaitu:

Teori Conditio Sine Qua Non (Van Buri)

Inti dari ajaran ini yaitu: tiap-tiap masalah, yang merupakan syarat untuk timbulnya suatu akibat, adalah sebab dari akibat. Misalnya A menyuruh B untuk membeli suatu barang di toko seberang jalan, ketika
menyeberang ia ditabrak mobil yang dikendarai oleh C. Sebenarnya yang merupakan sebab langsung terlukanya B adalah C, namun menurut Von Buri, kesalahan bisa ditimbulkan pada semua pihak yang mengakibatkan kerugian, yaitu A yang menyuruh B dan C yang menabrak B.

Teori Adaequate Veroorzaking (Von Kries)

Pada intinya suatu perbuatan harus dinaggap sebagai sebab dari akibat yang timbul adalah perbuatan yang seimbang dengan akibatnya. perbuatan yang seimbang tersebut diukur berdasarkan perhitungan yang layak yakni yang menurut akal sehat patut dapat diduga bahwa perbuatan tersebut menimbulkan akibat tertentu.

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Allowed Justifications of Tort

Allowed justification  of tort is reason for the things that are deleting/ eliminating the nature of the tort. Literally the act committed is a tort however due to certain circumstances the act is justified (allowed), the example are as follows:

 

a. Forced Defense (noodweer);
Harming people who intend to injure in order to defend themselves in compulsion (Article 49 of the Indonesian Criminal Code), and breaking a neighbor’s window to save a child who is trapped in a burning house (Article 48 of the Indonesian Criminal Code) are two examples of justifications permitted under the law because these are categorized as actions taken to defend themselves and emergencies based on the Criminal Code. The reason is that the justification given by this law will reduce one element of the lawsuit which constitutes “illegitimate acts”.

b. Absence of a healthy mind (small children or crazy people);
Hoge Raad (Dutch Supreme Court) through its verdict dated December 9, 1960 or often known as Jaguar Arrest stipulated that Article 1365 of the Civil Code cannot be adopted as a legal basis because there is no understanding of people who have mental disorders regarding whether a legal action or not. In this case, there is a teenager who has a mental disorder to “ride” using someone else’s car, resulting in damage to his car.

 

c. Forced situation (overmacht);
The situation of force in the Civil Code is regulated in articles 1244 and 1245 of the Civil Code, which in essence states that a person must not be punished if he commits an act against the law due to coercive circumstances. See also article 48 of the Criminal Code.

d. Implement the Act (weetelijk voorschrift)

Under Jurisprudence of MA No. 206K / Sip / 1956 it is stated that the actions of the plaintiff who is a creditor who asks for the conservatior seizure on the debtor’s property as a defendant, is not against the law. (see the verdict to better understand this)

e. Superior orders

An example of this is related to legal authority means the authority given by law to take action on behalf of law enforcement. For example, when employees of the Corruption Eradication Commission chase fugitives hiding in someone’s private property, thereby forcing the Commission to break down the property’s door. then this is not the fault of the employee, but an order from his superiors to pursue and enforce the law and the consequences of the legal authority inherent in his superiors.

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Alasan Pembenar Perbuatan Melawan Hukum

Alasan pembenar merupakan suatu justifikasi atas hal-hal yang yanghapuskan/menghilangkan sifat perbuatan melawan hukum. Secara harfiah perbuatan yang dilakukan merupakan perbuatan melawan hukum namun akibat keadaan tertentu perbuatan tersebut dibenarkan, contohnya adalah sebagai berikut:

a. Pembelaan Terpaksa (noodweer);
Menyakiti orang yang bermaksud melukai demi membela diri dalam keadaan terpaksa (Pasal 49 KUHPidana Indonesia), dan memecahkan jendela tetangga untuk menyelamatkan seorang anak yang terperangkap dalam rumah yang terbakar (Pasal 48 dari KUHPidana Indonesia) adalah dua contoh justifikasi yang diizinkan berdasarkan undang-undang karena ini dikategorikan sebagai tindakan yang dilakukan untuk mempertahankan diri dan keadaan darurat berdasarkan KUHPidana. Alasannya adalah bahwa alasan pembenar yang diberikan oleh hukum ini akan mengurangi salah satu unsur gugatan yang merupakan “perbuatan yang melawan hukum”.

b. Tidak adanya pikiran yang sehat (anak kecil atau orang gila);
Hoge Raad (Mahkamah Agung belanda) melalui keputusannya tertanggal 9 Desember 1960 atau seing dikenal sebagai Jaguar Arrest menetapkan bahwa Pasal 1365 dari KUHPerdata tidak dapat diadopsi sebagai dasar hukum karena tidak adanya pemahaman orang-orang yang memiliki gangguan mental mengenai apakah suatu tindakan legal atau tidak. Dalam hal ini, ada seorang remaja yang memiliki gangguan mental melakukan “menumpang” menggunakan mobil orang lain, sehingga mengakibatkan kerusakan terhadap mobilnya .

c. Keadaan Memaksa (overmacht);
Keadaan memkasa di dalam KUHPerdata diatur dalam pasal 1244 dan 1245 KUHPerdata, yang pada intinya menyatakan tidaklah boleh seseorang dihukum, bila dia melakukan suatu perbuatan melawan hukum dikarenakan oleh keadaan memaksa. Lihat juga pasal 48 KUHPidana.

d. Melaksanakan Undang-undang (weetelijk voorschrift)

Dalam Yursprudensi MA 206K/Sip/1956 disebutkan bahwa tindakan penggugat yang merupakan kreditur yang meminta dilakukannya pensitaan conservatior atas harta benda debitur sebagai tergugat, tidaklah melawan hukum. 

e. Perintah atasan

Sebuah contoh terkait ini adalah pada kewenangan hukum berarti otoritas yang diberikan oleh hukum untuk melakukan tindakan atas nama penegakan hukum. Misalnya, ketika pegawai dari Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi mengejar buron bersembunyi di properti pribadi seseorang, karenanya memaksa Komisi untuk mendobrak pintu properti tersebut. maka hal tersebut bukan lah kesalahan dari pegawai tersebut, melainkan perintah dari atasannya untuk melakukan pengejaran dan penegakan hukum serta akibat dari kewenangan hukum yang melekat pada atasannya.

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Type of Claim in Tort Lawsuits

Compensation in the concept of an tort is to return the affected party to its original state as if an unlawful act did not occur.

There are several types of compensation claims for tort which using article 1365 Indonesian Civil Code as the, including:

  • Make an announcement or statement that the act committed is an act against the law;
  • Compensation in monetary form for the said action;
  • Compensation by returning everything into original condition;

It should be noted that compensation can be in forms other than money (i.e. in kind or natura).

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Jenis Tuntutan Perbuatan Melawan Hukum

Ganti kerugian dalam konsep perbuatan melawan hukum ialah mengembalikan penderita ke keadaan semula seakan-akan tidaklah terjadi perbuatan melawan hukum tersebut.

Terdapat beberapa jenis tuntutan ganti rugi untuk perbuatan melawan hukum yang menggunakan dasar 1365 KUHPerdata, antara lain:

  • Melakukan pengumuman atau pernyataan bahwa perbuatan yang dilakukan adalah perbuatan melawan hukum;
  • Ganti Rugi dalam bentuk uang atas tindakan tersebut;
  • Ganti Rugi untuk pengembalian keadaan seperti semula;

Perlu dicatat bahwa penggantian kerugian bisa dalam bentuk selain uang (i.e. in kind or natura).

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